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    2016年中国产业结构调整对高校毕业生就业的影响

    摘要

    2016年城镇新增就业企稳回升,9月份累计城镇新增就业1067万人,全国城镇登记失业率为4.04%,提前完成全年就业目标任务。化解过剩产能中就业压力增大,政府就业政策力度也不断加大,先后出台了三个就业有关政策。当前就业形势保持稳定,主要是基于经济增速保持在合理区间、产业结构不断优化、改革红利释放、就业政策发挥作用等四个方面的因素。产业的区域转移对高校毕业生就业地分布产生了一定影响,产业转型升级背景下毕业生在第三产业就业的比例最高,毕业生从事教育、医疗、信息类职业的比例持续增加。建议高度重视高校毕业生就业工作,关注毕业生的就业稳定性问题;优化针对高校毕业生的创业服务,提供更丰富有效和灵活多样的服务;加强人才需求的统计与预测工作,提高高等院校人才培养与市场需求之间的符合度;重视毕业生的就业质量。

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    Abstract

    In 2016,China’s labor market maintains at a stable situation throughout the year,and substantial employment opportunities are created. For the first three quarters,a total of 10.67 million urban jobs were created,which already accomplished the annual target set at the beginning of the year. The urban registered unemployment rate still maintains at a low level of 4.04%. During the process of addressing overcapacity and reducing inventory,the employment pressure has been accumulated. China’s government has promoted a series of policies to improve the employment situation. On the one hand,behind the stable employment situation,the fundamental factors include:China’s economic growth rate keeps at a reasonable range,the industrial structure has been upgraded,the bonus of reform has been released,and positive employment policy has been implemented. On the other hand,the regional transition of industry has also affected the location of the employment of university graduates. The percentage of employment of university graduates in the tertiary industry is the highest,while the percentage of employment in education,medical service,and information technology is also increasing. The authors recommend that,with high priority on enhancing employment rate among university graduates,more attention should be paid to the employment stability and the facility of innovation and entrepreneurship. Furthermore,providing effective and flexible employment service,strengthening the statistics collection and forecasting labor market demand,and bridging the gap between university education and labor market demand,will all improve the quality of employment among university graduates.

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    作者简介
    莫荣:莫荣,人力资源和社会保障部国际劳动保障研究所所长、研究员、博导,研究所学术委员会主任,中国就业问题专家,主要研究劳动就业、人力资源管理、职业培训、国际劳动保障和大数据等问题。
    汪昕宇:汪昕宇,北京联合大学人力资源管理研究所所长、教授,主要研究高校毕业生、农民工的就业问题。
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