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土地开发与基层治理

书 名: 土地开发与基层治理
英 文 名: GRASSROOTS GOVERNANCE AND LAND DEVELOPMENT
作 者: 耿羽
I S B N: 978-7-5201-2563-5
丛 书 名: 田野中国 订阅
关 键 词:  土地管理 土地开发 中国
出版日期: 2019-04-01

中文摘要

我国城市化推进过程中伴随大量土地开发,土地开发引发的社会矛盾呈现多发易发、错综复杂的态势。化解土地开发引发的征迁矛盾,与基层治理密切相关。征迁具有双重属性:一方面,征迁的本质是利益分配,具有可协商属性;另一方面,征迁又是高额利益分配,呈现复杂协商属性。全面认识征迁治理实践图景,可以有针对性地通过完善基层协商民主机制化解复杂的征迁难题。

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城镇化进程中纠纷矛盾的减少或化解,关键在于土地增值利益的分配,许多学者给出的解决方案是“地利共享”“多方共赢”,但关于“地利共享”的具体内容和实现路径,却仍有不少需要厘清之处。孙中山先生早在100多年前就提出“地尽其利、地利共享”的思想,孙中山的论述重点在于土地增值利益不应全归地主所有,而应由全民分享。新中国的土地开发方式一定程度上吸收了孙中山的思想,但在经济发展过程中,土地增值利益相关主体愈来愈集中于地方政府、厂商和开发商,学术界对此提出了若干土地产权和土地发展权(Land development right)的改革建议,这些建议是否能达成“地利共享”,值得进一步辨析和探讨。

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中国经济尤其是制造业的腾飞,主要依靠国内廉价劳动力和廉价土地实现成本优势,吸引外来的技术和资本。中国土地制度为经济发展提供了灵活的弹性空间,政府可以低成本向投资者提供企业用地,亦能低成本地建设城市各种基础设施,前者削减了投资商的落地成本,后者形成一系列的投资配套,同样是吸引投资商的重要因素。

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官僚动员制因“行政遮蔽政治”逻辑而生发,又因为“行政遮蔽政治”引发治理瓶颈,政府希望通过继续强化官僚动员制来克服危机。当前,动员制在基层治理中的特征是:一是动员主要体现为官僚动员制;二是政府试图全盘依赖行政力量(动员制是重要方式)进行基层治理。“行政遮蔽政治”引发颇多治理难题,政府仍然试图通过行政力量(如加强动员制)应对。

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自传统社会到现代社会,中国的治理形态很难清晰地归为某一种类型。韦伯将政府状态划分为三种“理想类型”:家父长制、官僚制和卡里斯玛。

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乡镇用各种形式支持村干部收取税费,并按比例回馈一定收益,甚至在一定程度上默许村干部使用不正当手段收取税费或是借收取税费之机谋取不正当利益,乡村之间正常的工作对接关系很多时候异化为合谋从村庄中过度提取利益。

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拆迁的难题就在于,政府的同质化补偿标准与被拆迁户的异质化需求之间存在巨大的差距。在谈判涉及很大利益的时候,规则复杂化、精准化对双方都是一种制约:地方政府不至于随意压低价格,村民不至于漫天要价。但规则复杂化并不会杜绝村民提出特殊化需求,拆迁涉及的利益才是村民从各个角度提出特殊性需求的目的。

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在我国城镇化推进过程中,大量土地和房屋被征收,征迁所引发的社会矛盾呈现多发易发、错综复杂的态势,征迁事务被称为“天下第一难事”。

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