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中国五年规划发展报告(2021~2022)

书 名: 中国五年规划发展报告(2021~2022)
英 文 名: DEVELOPMENT REPORT OF CHINA’S 14TH FIVE-YEAR PLAN (2021-2022)
作 者:  李雪松 李海舰 张友国
I S B N: 978-7-5228-0349-4
丛 书 名: 发展规划蓝皮书
关 键 词:  “十四五” 规划 宏观经济 科技创新 产业区域 数字经济 绿色低碳
出版日期: 2022-07-01

中文摘要

编制和实施国民经济和社会发展五年规划是我们党治国理政的重要方式。自1953年第一个“五年计划”开始,我国已经编制并实施了十个“五年计划”和三个“五年规划”。每个五年规划的实施都成为国家重大建设项目和产业发展布局,以及国民经济和社会发展与人民群众生活保障的重要依据。2015年中共中央“十三五”规划建议全面系统阐释了新发展理念的深刻内涵,2021年中共中央“十四五”规划建议详细论述了新发展格局的战略重点。新发展理念确立了我国推进经济社会高质量发展的指导原则,新发展格局刻画了我国实现高质量发展目标的路径选择。

当前,我国经济发展面临需求收缩、供给冲击、预期转弱三重压力。但同时经济发展空间大、韧性强的优势依然存在。应对三重压力,需加快推进“需求结构、供给结构、效率结构”三重升级,把短期稳增长政策与长期发展战略更好地衔接起来,完整、准确、全面贯彻新发展理念,加快构建新发展格局。需求结构升级方面,要高度重视并强化需求侧管理,建设强大国内市场,其重点包括:加快完善社会福利制度体系,推动消费扩容和升级;推动投资结构优化,适度超前进行基础设施建设,聚焦“两新一重”领域扩大有效投资;提升积极财政政策效力,充分发挥财政转移支付对以人为核心的新型城镇化的促进作用。供给结构升级方面,要进一步推动供给侧结构性改革,建设现代化产业体系,其重点包括:促进科技自立自强,加强基础研究,加快攻克重要领域“卡脖子”技术;聚焦战略性、基础性产业,聚焦产业链中的断点、短板,加大强弱项投资力度,尽快解决供应链中的瓶颈问题;大力发展数字经济,推动数字产业化和产业数字化;推动绿色低碳产业发展壮大,加快新能源开发;创造条件尽早实现能耗“双控”向碳排放总量和强度“双控”转变,完善绿色低碳政策和市场体系。效率结构升级方面,需重点理顺政府与市场关系,提升经济增长潜力,重点包括:推动土地、资本、技术、数据等要素价格由市场决定;加快形成市场化、法治化、国际化营商环境,构建更加成熟、更加完善的社会主义市场经济体制;以降低金融中介成本为核心,深化金融供给侧结构性改革,打造规范、透明、开放、有活力、有韧性的资本市场;进一步理顺中央和地方政府以及地方政府之间的财权和事权关系;推动对外开放由商品和要素流动型开放向规则等制度型开放转变,进一步扩大自贸区有效改革开放措施的适用范围。

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