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福建碳达峰碳中和报告(2022)

书 名: 福建碳达峰碳中和报告(2022)
英 文 名: ANNUAL REPORT ON FUJIAN CARBON PEAK AND CARBON NEUTRALITY (2022)
作 者: 国网福建省电力有限公司经济技术研究院
I S B N: 978-7-5228-0484-2
丛 书 名: 低碳发展蓝皮书
关 键 词:  碳达峰 碳中和 福建省
出版日期: 2022-09-01

中文摘要

《福建碳达峰碳中和报告(2022)》是国网福建省电力有限公司经济技术研究院开展碳达峰碳中和研究的成果。本书归纳、总结和梳理了2021年福建省总体碳排放情况,结合碳市场建设、碳汇增加、低碳技术发展等分析了2021年福建省控碳、减碳措施,探讨了福建省打造东南清洁能源大枢纽、发展新能源产业、构建绿色低碳循环经济的情况,从欧盟“碳边界调节机制”(CBAM)、国际碳达峰碳中和、德国电力系统发展、国外典型城市碳中和、英国和法国电力集团碳减排、全球能源短缺等国际视角分析了国际碳减排情况和相关启示,为福建省推进碳达峰碳中和目标提供智库支撑。全书分为总报告、分报告、能源治理篇、国际借鉴篇4个部分。

本书指出,在经济快速发展带动下,2019年福建省碳排放总量维持上升态势、同比增长6.4%,供能行业、制造业、居民生活和交通运输业4个行业仍是全省最大的碳排放来源,在基准场景、加速转型场景和深度优化场景下预计福建省分别于2030年、2028年和2026年实现碳达峰。2021年,福建省高度重视碳汇发展,率先建立了林长制,推出了林业碳票和碳汇基金,推出了会议碳中和、“一元碳汇”小程序、林业碳汇指数保险、“生态司法+碳汇”、碳中和机票等碳汇应用场景。2021年,福建省试点碳市场与全国碳市场并轨运行。福建省风电、光伏、核电等清洁能源快速发展,风电装机规模达735万千瓦、同比增长51.2%,光伏装机规模达277万千瓦、同比增长36.9%,核电装机规模达986万千瓦、同比增长13.2%,预计2022年福建省风电、光伏、核电仍将稳步增长,为全省碳达峰碳中和持续增强清洁动力。2021年,福建省提出推动高耗能产业节能改造、加快培育新型产业、推动产业结构绿色低碳升级等政策,明确完善碳排放的统计监测体系、加快构建低碳标准评价体系,提出加快研究海洋碳汇调查、核算方法论和持续提升生态系统碳汇能力等措施,提出以市场化手段鼓励低碳技术发展,持续深化低碳试点工作,积极探索低碳发展路径。总体来说,2021年福建省在绿色经济、绿色交通、绿色能源、绿色金融领域迈上新台阶,绿色制造体系加快建设,新动能新产业加快发展,供给低碳化程度不断加深,终端用能清洁化水平持续提高,绿色金融共享平台加快建设,绿色金融产品陆续推出,控碳工作和控碳举措稳步推进。

能源治理是碳达峰碳中和的关键,产品碳足迹、甲烷减排等是推进碳达峰碳中和的重要补充。本书指出,福建省海上风电已勘测可开发量达7000万千瓦,经济技术可行的核电可装机容量达3300万千瓦,且福建省位于长三角、粤港澳大湾区等区域交会点,可进一步打造东南清洁能源大枢纽,以“风、光、储、氢”四轮驱动助推新能源产业升级,助力全国实现碳达峰碳中和。产品碳足迹方面,国外已有成熟应用的评价标准,中国已发布相关标准但涉及的产品种类有限,福建省尚未开展相关研究。甲烷减排方面,21世纪以来多个国家地区开始关注这类强势温室气体,其排放量约占温室气体排放量的10%左右,2021年开始中国从国家层面重点关注甲烷减排。

国际上关于碳减排工作已积累丰富的实践经验。本书指出,2021年7月,欧盟委员会正式提出CBAM立法草案,拟对欧盟进口的部分商品征收碳关税,该草案在一定程度上可能对国际贸易环境及福建省出口贸易结构和贸易方式产生负面影响。2021年,全球已有54个国家实现碳达峰,德国在源、网、荷三侧构建了适应以新能源为主体的电力系统,阿德莱德、奥斯陆、温哥华等部分国际城市已探索城市碳中和发展路径,全球因能源转型、气温气候、经济复苏等出现能源短缺,都给福建省推进碳达峰碳中和工作带来了丰富的经验启示。

本书建议,福建省碳排放仍处于上升阶段,需以全省碳达峰行动方案编制为契机,做好顶层设计,突破能源、产业、能效三大重点领域,健全政策机制,形成“1+3+1”合力,推动高质量碳达峰,为碳中和争取有利条件。一是整体谋划“双碳”战略布局,建立健全碳达峰碳中和政策体系,加快完善绿色低碳转型发展体系,统筹推进碳达峰试点建设。二是全力推动清洁低碳发展,提升供给侧清洁化水平,提升消费侧低碳化水平,推动构建新型电力系统。三是全力推动工业率先达峰,坚决遏制“两高”盲目发展,加快传统制造业绿色转型,大力发展战略性新兴产业。四是全力推动社会绿色转型,完善节能管理机制,实施城市节能工程,加强新型基础设施节能。五是全面保障“双碳”目标落地,建立碳排放统计监测体系,探索碳足迹跟踪制度,优化监督管控体系,健全财税金融政策,完善市场化交易机制。

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