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少数民族城镇居民幸福感与构建和谐边疆

书 名: 少数民族城镇居民幸福感与构建和谐边疆
英 文 名:
作 者: 张爱萍
I S B N: 978-7-5097-6381-0
丛 书 名: 非传统安全与边疆治理丛书
关 键 词:  中国 研究 城镇 少数民族 居民生活 幸福 社会主义建设模式 边疆地区
出版日期: 2014-12-01

中文摘要

本书在深度访谈的基础上,结合奚恺元老师已有的研究成果,编制了《新疆少数民族城镇居民生活满意度问卷》,构建了少数民族城镇居民幸福感的理论分析框架,建立了一个综合指数来反映少数民族城镇居民的幸福感,进而弥补幸福感在少数民族城镇居民研究领域的不足。同时以幸福感为视角,从影响新疆少数民族城镇居民幸福感的主客观因素着手,为建构和谐新疆提供新的视角和依据。

幸福感与生活满意度相关,在生活满意度各维度中,区域经济发展状况和人情味状况是影响新疆少数民族城镇居民幸福感的重要因素。在人口统计学变量中居住隶属地、家庭居住地、政治面貌、受教育程度、家庭人数、收入是影响新疆少数民族城镇居民幸福感的重要因素。本书分析了影响幸福感的客观因素与主观因素,深入探讨了这些因素对新疆少数民族城镇居民幸福感的影响。

新疆少数民族城镇居民幸福感具有鲜明的宗教色彩,安拉在《古兰经》中有言,“信道而且行善者,得享幸福和优美的归宿。”伊斯兰教视野下的幸福有着自身的特点。本书探索了伊斯兰教视野下的幸福,即幸福是今世与后世的统一;幸福是痛苦与快乐的辩证的统一;幸福是物质的享受和精神的追求的统一;幸福是利己与利他的统一;幸福注重因与果的统一。

本书探索了提升新疆少数民族幸福感,从而加快构建新疆和谐社会的路径。幸福是可以习得的,可以通过教育强化幸福认知,挖掘积极心理学在幸福观形成中的潜能作用。发挥先进文化的引领作用,促进宗教与先进文化相适应,营造多元文化和谐和浓厚的民族团结人情味,提升新疆少数民族城镇居民幸福感,确保新疆各民族居民幸福而有尊严的生活,是构建和谐新疆最坚实的基础。

已有研究表明,收入对主观幸福感仅在非常贫穷时有影响,一旦人们的基本需要得到满足,收入的影响就变得很小了。本书发现,经济收入与居民幸福感呈强相关性,社会发展对居民的幸福感提升有着极为重要的影响。这也说明新疆仍然处在贫穷状态,所以加快新疆少数民族地区的经济社会发展至关重要,让新疆的各民族富裕起来,提升居民幸福感,促进和谐新疆的构建。

本书发现就业、教育、医疗等民生问题对新疆少数民族城镇居民幸福感同样有着极为重要的影响,加快新疆民生建设,使社会发展的成果更大程度地惠及百姓,从而加快构建和谐新疆的步伐。

Based on a series of extensive interviews and combining with the research of Professor Xi Kaiyuan(Christopher K. Hsee),this book compiles a Life Satisfaction Questionnaire of Xinjiang Minority Urban Dwellers,constructs a framework of theoretical analysis of sense of happiness of Xinjiang and develops a comprehensive index to measure the sense of happiness of Xinjiang minority urban dwellers,aiming at compensating the lack of sense of happiness in the field of the research on minority urban dwellers. At the same time,from a perspective of sense of happiness,this book begins with an analysis of subjective and objective factors on sense of happiness of Xinjiang minority urban dwellers,thus provides a new perspective and a basis for the construction of a harmonious Xinjiang.

The sense of happiness and life satisfaction is closely correlated,and among the dimensions of life satisfaction,regional economic development and condition of human touch are the two important factors affecting the sense of happiness of Xinjiang minority urban dwellers. In the demographic variables,where-the-place-one-lives-in-belongs,where-one’s-family-lives,political status,educational background,family size and family monthly income are the important factors affecting the sense of happiness of Xinjiang minority urban dwellers. This book analyses the subjective and objective factors affecting people’s sense of happiness and explores how these factors affect the sense of happiness of Xinjiang minority urban dwellers.

The sense of happiness of Xinjiang minority urban dwellers is characterized by the distinct religious features. There are Islamic characteristics in the Muslim’s sense of happiness that distinguish theirs from that of others. As Allah puts it in Quran,“those who believe and do right:Joy is for them,and bliss (their) journey’s end.” (13:29)This book explores the Islamic view of happiness:happiness is the unification of this life and next life;happiness is the dialectical unity of pain and pleasure;happiness is the unity of material pleasure and spiritual pursuit;happiness is the unity of concern for one’s own well-being and concern for the that of others;happiness has the unity of cause and effect as its core.

The study explores the routes to improve the sense of happiness of Xinjiang minority urban dwellers and the routes to speed up the construction of harmonious society in Xinjiang. Happiness can be acquired through education,strengthening cognition of happiness and exertion of the potential roles of positive psychology in the formation of the concept of happiness. The advanced culture’s leading role,the promotion of religion’s adaption to the advanced culture,the integration of multicultures,the unity of all nationalities and the improvement of people’s sense of happiness and living a happy life with dignity for people of all nationalities will work together to lay a solid foundation for the building of a harmonious Xinjiang.

The preceding studies have shown that the income,only when it is at a certain minimum level,has influence on one’s sense of happiness. While once it meets a person’s basic needs,it only plays a very limited role in one’s subjective sense of happiness. This book finds that there exists a strong correlation between family income and people’s subjective sense of happiness,and the social development has a significant effect on people’s sense of happiness. It indicates that Xinjiang is still an underdeveloped region,so it is crucial to speed up economic and social development in ethnic minority areas in Xinjiang,to realize the prosperity of all nationalities in Xinjiang,to improve people’s sense of happiness and to promote the building of a harmonious Xinjiang.

This study finds that the employment,education,medical care and other livelihood issues have very significant influence on the sense of happiness of minority urban dwellers of Xinjiang. Thus,to accelerate the building of people’s livelihood and to allow people to share the benefit from the fruits of social development to a greater degree will speed up the pace of building a harmonious Xinjiang.

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