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中国公民参与

书 名: 中国公民参与
英 文 名: Citizen Participation in china
作 者: 贾西津
I S B N: 978-7-5097-0352-6
关 键 词:  公民 参与管理 中国
出版日期: 2008-10-01

中文摘要

公民参与问题在国外讨论和研究很多,上面提到的近些年在西方国家影响日益增大的协商民主理论,其实主要是一种公民参与的理论。但在我国,对公民参与的讨论和研究相对较少,我们总是把更多的关注或是放在自由、平等、正义、人权等民主的普遍价值上,或是放在民主制度、民主文化和民主机制的中国特色上,对公民参与的一般性理论研究不多。本文将对公民参与的概念、要素、意义、形式、领域、条件、危机等一般问题做一简要论述,并就扩大公民的有序参与提出若干建议。

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公民参与的形式主要包括经典的选举参与、公民参与公共政策,以及新型治理理念下的参与式治理。公民参与的本质意义可以被视为公民权力的实现,非政府组织作为公民自组织,是公民权力实现的重要途径。本篇分析了中国非政府组织在不同类型公民参与模式中的作用和特性。

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公民参与公共政策是公民参与最普遍的形式。公民对公共政策的参与包括公共政策的发起、制定、实施、评估等各个阶段。在中国,公民参与公共政策的重要性正逐渐为公共管理者和公众所认识,其中,非政府组织参与公共政策的范围和深度也在不断扩展。

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20世纪80年代以来,政府采购作为政府职能转变的重要策略之一而被诸多国家所采用,向非政府组织采购服务是政府采购的重要方向之一。在我国,政府采购几乎等于采购物资和工程,服务采购的比例还很低,向非政府组织采购服务的比例更低。这是关乎政府职能转移的重大问题。

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城市社区建设在全国范围内蓬勃开展,出现了各种社区治理的模式,比较典型的如上海模式、沈阳模式、江汉模式和盐田模式等,其中近年出现的宁波市海曙区的社区参与式治理,体现了社区自治的方向,值得引起注意。

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随着政府职能做出相应的转变,给社会留出更大的发展空间,农民寻求自我教育、自我管理和合作的意识在不断增强,农民开始通过成立组织来发展、维护自身利益。实践表明,农民组织在解决“三农”问题、提高农民收入、降低交易费用、构建和谐社会等方面发挥了积极作用。

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据统计,中国全国目前有外来工2亿人。他们在城市中的分布往往比较集中,构成了一些特殊的社区。本篇选择浙江奉化的力邦村,上海普陀区的桃苑村,以及海口的外来工之家这三个案例,分析了外来工参与式治理的不同模式。三个案例各有特色和突出之处,在实践中值得借鉴。

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近些年来,浙江基层民主政治建设引人注目,尤其是以促进政府与公民之间对话、扩大公众对当地公共事务参与为特征的温岭“民主恳谈”模式更是吸引了各地地方政府、学者和媒体等诸多目光并受到广泛关注。

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媒体所具有的传播社会信息、引导公众舆论以及监督政治权力的三大功能,使其在公众参与中扮演着独特的角色,促进了公民参与立法、决策和公共治理的发展。本篇以公共领域、审议民主,以及传媒、公众、政府三种议程三角互动的不同视角来审视中国媒体在公众参与中的角色,并以四个典型事件为例加以分析。研究认为,在转型期中国,大众传媒渐成政策系统中各种利益表达与聚合的公共平台,是影响公共政策的重要变量;但对媒体的行为起决定作用的仍然不是市场,而是官方的态度,中国媒体要担当“社会公器”的角色还有很长的路要走。

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公民参与是对公民权力的一种表述。权力分享使得目前被排除在政治和经济过程之外的穷人能够在将来有意地参与进来。它是一种策略,穷人能够通过它参与决定,包括如何分享信息、目标和政策的达成,税收资源的分配、项目的开展、合同和资助的收益等。简而言之,通过这种方式,无权者能够促进重大的社会变革,从而使得他们能够分享到富足社会的好处。

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