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全面建成小康社会之精准扶贫经验
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谢伏瞻
    中国社会科学院院长、党组书记,学部委员,学部主席团主席,研究员,博士生导师。历任国务院发展研究中心副主任、国家统... 详情>>
蔡 昉
    1956年9月生于北京。现任中国社会科学院副院长、党组成员,曾任中国社会科学院人口与劳动经济研究所所长,博士生导师,研... 详情>>
李培林
    男,山东济南人。博士,研究员,中国社会科学院副院长,中国社会学会副会长,中国社会科学院社会学研究所副所长。《社会... 详情>>

    应对新技术革命的一个可行政策工具:全民基本收入

    摘要

    UBI从理念和现实经历了几百年的历程,过去几十年在国际上的一些试验为其积累了丰富的经验。中国在新一轮技术革命中的引领角色和新技术广泛应用基础为UBI试验提供有利条件,而当前社会保护体系的不健全尤其是覆盖率和瞄准率问题较为突出,更是成为UBI试验的推动力,中国特色社会主义制度也理所当然地为UBI发展提供独特的保障。从长期来看,UBI在中国发展的主要问题是筹资和管理,技术因素不会成为主要制约。筹资是首要挑战,若按照2017年全国农村平均低保标准每人每年4300元估算,据此当年全部国民每人无条件地获得现金转移支付,当年UBI总资金投入需要达到6万亿元,相当于当年GDP的7.3%,短期内这一投入强度难以达到,但可以考虑低水平起步,随着国民经济发展水平逐渐调整提高,筹资渠道也可以多样化,至少可以考虑以下三个渠道:一是财政直接拨付;二是国有企业收益划转;三是具有社会责任感的企业和社会组织捐赠。

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    Abstract

    UBI has gone through hundreds of years from concept and reality,and has accumulated rich experience in some international experiments in the past decades. China’s leading role in the new technological revolution and the extensive application of new technologies provide favorable conditions for the UBI test,while the current social protection system is not perfect,especially the coverage and targeting rate,which has become the driving force of the UBI test. Socialist system with Chinese characteristics also naturally provides a unique guarantee for the development of UBI. In the long run,the main problem of UBI’s development in China is financing and management,and technical factors will not be the main constraints. Financing is the primary challenge. According to the estimate of 4300 yuan per person per year according to the national average minimum living standard in rural areas in 2017,the total capital input of UBI in that year needs to reach 6 trillion yuan,equivalent to 7.3% of GDP in that year. In the short run,it is difficult to achieve this input intensity,but we can consider starting at a low level with the development of national economy. Improvement and gradual adjustment. Financing channels can also be diversified,at least considering the following three channels:first,direct financial allocation;second,transfer of income from state-owned enterprises;third,donations from enterprises and social organizations with a sense of social responsibility.

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    作者简介
    程杰:程杰,管理学博士,中国社会科学院人口与劳动经济研究所,副研究员,研究方向:社会保障与就业。
    张雪梅:张雪梅,中国社会科学院上海人民政府上海研究院、上海大学,硕士研究生。
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