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    场域理论视角下社区调解信任机制研究——以M社区和K社区为例

    摘要

    社区调解作为一种非正式的社会控制手段在解决矛盾纠纷方面起着非常重要的作用。作为社区调解基础的信任机制,在调解中发挥着很重要的作用。文章从两个社区的调解案例出发,对比分析二者在调解中存在的异同点,并在此基础上得出调解中信任机制的运行逻辑及其影响因素。研究发现,M社区调解是在“乡土认同”的基础上寻求“乡土正义”,调解人的调解惯习是“情为主、理为辅、法次之”,并基于“乡土性”场域特征获取“乡土信任”;K社区调解是在“法理认同”的基础上寻求“法理正义”,调解人的调解惯习是“法为主、理为辅、情次之”,并基于“法理性”场域特征取得“法理信任”,且两社区调解人均使用“同理心”作为调解的主要方法。信任研究中存在信任机制模型,即调解人凭借先赋或后赋因素形成“信任存量”,借助调解惯习获得“信任增量”,并利用回访或反馈使整个过程形成良性循环。

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    Abstract

    Community mediation is playing an increasingly important role in terms of resolving contradictions among the people,which is as an informal means of social control and is one of the most important mediation systems. Meanwhile,as the core of the community mediation,trust mechanism also plays a fundamental role. The Article starts from the two community mediation cases and compares with the similarities and differences that exist in the mediation,generalizing the logical operation of the trust mechanism and its influencing factors on this basis.

    That mediation in the M community is seeking “local justice” based on “local identity”,which leads to its use of specific mediation habitus is “mutual affection based,supplemented by justification,followed by law” and is influenced on the “local features” which is relied on seniority and prestige and obtains the “local trust”;while the mediation in K community based on the “legal identity” is seeking “legal justice”,resulting in a specific order in which the use of mediation habitus is “law-based,supplemented by justification,followed by mutual affection” and is influenced on the “legality features” which is relied on legal status and obtains the “legal trust”. The survey found that the two community mediators all use “empathy” as the main method in mediation. At the same time,there is the model of trust mechanism to “trust stock” and “trust incremental” as the core of the trust research,namely the logic of trust mechanism is that the mediator uses “trust stock” to obtain the “trust incremental”,and by the means of the appropriate habitus of mediation in resolving disputes in order to make the process form a virtuous circle.

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    作者简介
    黄家亮:黄家亮,北京科技大学文法学院副院长、社会学系副教授,中国人民大学社会学理论与方法研究中心副研究员。
    韩愈:韩愈,清华大学法学院研究生。
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