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    中国城乡居民健康状况及健康影响因素变化分析

    摘要

    了解中国城乡居民的健康状况以及变化趋势,分析主要健康影响因素的变化情况,为完善中国健康促进策略和干预措施提供决策依据,推动中国居民健康水平的提高。方法:利用面板数据资料和现场抽查数据,采取横断面比较及历史发展前后对比的方法,结合专家访谈定性分析结果,进行现状分析。结果:居民总体健康水平得到进一步提升,婴儿死亡率、孕产妇死亡率均呈逐年降低的趋势,人均期望寿命在逐年增加。居民两周患病率有所增高但严重程度减轻,慢性病患病率呈大幅上升趋势,死亡原因以慢性非传染性疾病为主。膳食营养状况总体改善,体格发育情况总体良好。健康行为方式有所改善,但健康危险因素尚未得到有效控制。结论:以健康为中心,推动完善健康中国战略的顶层设计;实施有针对性的健康促进综合干预措施;继续深入推动医药卫生体制改革,加强重点人群预防保健与管理工作;积极推进慢性病患者健康管理,完善慢性病防治体系。

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    Abstract

    Objectives:To provide decision-making basis for the improvement of health promotion strategies and interventions in China and consequently promote the health level of Chinese residents,we described the health status and its trends of urban and rural residents in China as well analyzed the changes in major health influencing factors. Methods:Through the panel and the sampling survey data,the present situation of health was analyzed by using the method of cross-section comparison and historical development before and after comparison,in conjunction with the results of qualitative analysis through expert interviews. Results:The overall health level has been further improved. Two weeks prevalence rate has increased but the severe level decreased. The prevalence of chronic diseases showed a sharply rising trend and has been the main cause of death. The overall level of dietary nutritional status has been improved and the overall physical development showed a better trend. Health behavior styles have improved,but the health risk factors have not been effectively controlled. Recommendation:The top-level design of Health Chinese Strategy should be improved centering on health;the comprehensive targeted interventions for health promotion should be implemented;the prevention and healthcare for the vulnerable groups including the elderly,the maternal,the young,etc. should be strengthened;and the prevention and control system of chronic disease should be improved to actively promote the management of patients with chronic diseases.

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    作者简介
    李滔:李滔,博士,国家卫生计生委卫生发展研究中心主任,中国城市报·中国健康城市研究院特约研究员,主要研究方向为卫生政策、卫生管理。
    郝晓宁:郝晓宁,博士,国家卫生计生委卫生发展研究中心公共卫生与风险管理研究室主任,主要研究方向为公共卫生管理、风险管理、老年健康。
    刘志:刘志,国家卫生计生委卫生发展研究中心实习研究员,主要研究方向为公共卫生、卫生应急管理。
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