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    20~21世纪日本破解养老难题实践研究

    摘要

    日本养老有三大难题,一是因年老丧失工作能力而没有经济来源,二是因体衰易病而需医治,三是因无法独立生活而需介护。在农业和家庭手工业为主的时代,以家族为劳作和生活的基本单元,居家养老没太大问题。到了明治时代,大工业的发展致使劳作与生活场所日渐分离,居家养老渐成难题,因此日本借鉴早期商业保险方式,制定了保险制度,以税收充实保险费的方式解决养老难题。第二次世界大战后日本据新宪法,从1961年始推行全民强制义务性年金与医疗的国民保险,2000年推行介护保险。为应对人口老龄化导致的社会保障费的激增和人口减少导致的税收减少,从1989年征收3%的消费税,在此之后,消费税不断提升。 <<
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    Abstract

    There are three major problems for the elderly care in Japan. The first one is the lack of financial resources due to old age,the second one is the medical treatment due to physical weakness and illness,and the third one is the need for nursing care due to the inability to live independently. In the era dominated by agriculture and cottage industries,with the family as the basic unit of work and life,there is no big problem for home care. In the Meiji era,the development of large-scale industry caused the separation of work and living places,and home care became a problem. Therefore,Japan learned from the early commercial insurance methods and formulated the insurance system to solve the problem of pensions by taxation to enrich insurance premiums. According to the new constitution after World War II,Japan began to implement national insurance for compulsory pensions and medical care for all people since 1961,and introduced nursing care insurance in 2000. In order to cope with the rapid increase in social security fees caused by the aging of the population and the reduction in taxes caused by population decline,a 3% consumption tax was levied in 1989,and the consumption tax was increased to 5%,8%,10% in 1997,2014,and 2019,respectively.

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    作者简介
    卓莲:卓莲,博士,教授,硕士生导师,湖山医疗福祉集团爱生会多摩成人病研究所主任研究员,主要研究方向为中日医疗福祉比较。
    〔日〕高桥泰:〔日〕高桥泰,国际医疗福祉大学教授,医学博士(东京大学),博士生导师,主要研究方向为医疗经营、医疗制度、养老国际比较。
    〔日〕坂本晃:〔日〕坂本晃,中小企业诊断士,日本电气通信大学毕业后从事电视台工作及“社会保险劳务师”工作。
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