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    中国农村宅基地闲置现状及整治模式

    摘要

    近年来,我国农村宅基地闲置问题日益普遍。2018年,农村宅基地闲置程度平均为10.7%。按四大区域分析,东部农村宅基地闲置程度最高,西部次之,东北第三,中部最低;按村庄区位条件看,村庄离城市距离越远,宅基地闲置程度越高;按地形来看,平原农区村庄宅基地闲置程度最高,丘陵地区最低;从贫困角度看,村庄宅基地闲置程度随村庄贫困程度的加深而升高。农村宅基地闲置最主要的两个原因是家庭成员长期外出务工和城镇有其他住房。分区域看,城镇有其他住房是东部、中部和东北部宅基地闲置的最主要成因。随着村庄离中心城市距离加大,家庭成员长期外出务工原因对宅基地闲置程度的影响增加,而城镇有其他住房原因的影响减弱。为盘活和重新利用农村闲置宅基地,各地开展了农村宅基地整治,而主要做法、安置补偿方式、推广条件等方面有所差异。针对农村宅基地整治中存在的问题,建议分区分类推进宅基地整治、适度放活宅基地流转范围、提升农户参与度、完善补偿标准、多渠道筹集资金、提升退出宅基地复垦率等。

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    关键词: 整治宅基地闲置

    Abstract

    In recent years,the problem of idle residential land in rural areas has become increasingly common.In 2018,the average degree of idleness of rural homesteads was 10.7%.According to the regional analysis,the degree of idleness of rural residential land in the east is the highest,followed by the west,the northeast and central China.According to the location conditions of the villages,the farther the villages from the city,the higher the degree of idleness of housing sites.From the view of terrain condition,it can be seen that the villages in the plain agricultural areas have the highest degree of idleness and the lowest in the hilly areas.From the perspective of rural poverty,the degree of idleness of the village residential land increases with the deepening of village poverty.Two main reasons for the idleness of rural homestead are long-term migration of family members and the possession of housing units in cities and towns.In terms of regions,the possession of housing units in cities and towns is the main cause for the idleness of rural homestead in the east,northeastern and central China.The farther away the village is from the central city,the greater the impact of long-term migration of family members on the degree of idleness of rural homestead,the lower the impact of the possession of housing units in cities and towns.In order to revitalize and utilize rural idle land,rural residential land rectification has been carried out in various places.Differences exist concerning main practices,resettlement compensation methods and promotion conditions.To address the problems identified in the practices of rural homestead rectification, the study suggests a number of measures, including promoting homestead rectification based on regional divisions and type classifications, activating the circulation scope of homestead appropriately, enhancing farmers' participation, improving compensation standards, raising funds through multiple channels, and enhancing the reclamation rate of exiting homestead.

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    作者简介
    李婷婷:李婷婷,博士,中国社会科学院农村发展研究所助理研究员,主要研究领域包括土地利用转型、农村产业发展。
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