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    医养结合模式:政策演变、发展现状与优化建议

    摘要

    作为有效满足老年人口医疗需求与照护需求的养老模式,我国的医养结合逐渐进入规范发展的新阶段。医养结合作为养老模式在制度上的创新,既是实现健康老龄化目标的必然选择,更是在“健康中国”战略背景下,积极应对新时代人口老龄化“慢富快老”和“富而过劳”紧迫局面的必然选择。国家高度重视老龄化问题,为积极推进“健康老龄化”,探索健康养老模式,2013年以来相继出台了一系列促进医养结合发展的政策,有力促进了医养结合事业的发展。当前我国医养结合实践模式主要有机构、社区和居家三种,逐步积累了部分经验。但总体来看,我国医养结合仍存在诸多困境,主要体现为政府部门多头管理,缺乏配套政策、制度和标准,专业医护人员短缺,服务收费水平偏高,服务内容单一僵化,医养结合监督评估体系不健全等。医养结合将是当前和未来我国养老模式的重点方向,亟待加强顶层设计,并促进实践发展。

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    Abstract

    As a valid endowment pattern to meet the medical and nursing needs of the elderly,the integrated health and care in China has gradually entered a new stage of standardized development. As an institutional innovation of the endowment pattern,The integrated health and care is not only an inevitable choice to achieve the goal of healthy aging,but also an inevitable choice to actively cope with the urgent population aging situation in the new era under the background of “Healthy China” strategy that “richen slowly and aging fast,” and “rich but overworked”. China attaches great importance to the issue of aging. In order to actively promote “healthy aging” and explore a healthy elderly care pattern,a series of policies have been issued since 2013 to promote the development of integrated health and care,which has effectively promoted the development of the integrated health and care. At present,there are three main patterns of integrated health and care in China:institution nursing service,community nursing service and home-based care,and then gradually accumulate some experience. But overall,there are still many difficulties in the integrated health and care in China,mainly reflected in the multi-head management of government departments,the lack of supporting policies,systems and standards,shortage of professional medical staff,high service charge levels,single content of service,and the imperfect supervision and evaluation of the integrated health and care. The integrated health and care will be the key direction of the current and future endowment patterm in China. It is urgent to strengthen the top-level design and promote the development of practice.

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    作者简介
    郝晓宁:郝晓宁,博士,国家卫生健康委卫生发展研究中心研究员,研究方向为老年健康、公共政策。
    任敏:任敏,西南医科大学附属医院主管护师。
    黄荟深:黄荟深,广西医科大学流行病学与卫生统计学专业硕士在读。
    孙佳乐:孙佳乐,南京医科大学公共管理专业硕士在读,研究方向为卫生政策与服务研究。
    李远雷:李远雷,哈尔滨医科大学社会医学与卫生事业管理专业硕士在读,研究方向为卫生政策。
    朱松梅:朱松梅,博士,中共陕西省委党校(陕西行政学院)讲师,研究方向为养老保障与公共经济。
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