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全面建成小康社会之精准扶贫经验
    本专题以总结全面建成小康社会阶段即精准扶贫阶段成果和经验为... 详情>>
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谢伏瞻
    中国社会科学院院长、党组书记,学部委员,学部主席团主席,研究员,博士生导师。历任国务院发展研究中心副主任、国家统... 详情>>
蔡 昉
    1956年9月生于北京。现任中国社会科学院副院长、党组成员,曾任中国社会科学院人口与劳动经济研究所所长,博士生导师,研... 详情>>
李培林
    男,山东济南人。博士,研究员,中国社会科学院副院长,中国社会学会副会长,中国社会科学院社会学研究所副所长。《社会... 详情>>

    民族地区脱贫攻坚与决胜全面小康的成就、经验与挑战

    摘要

    2018~2019年民族地区特别是“三区三州”贫困发生率显著下降,脱贫攻坚取得决定性成效。总体而言,民族地区特别是“三区三州”在脱贫攻坚和全面建设小康社会进程中的成功经验体现为:高度重视、高位推动脱贫攻坚工作,目标明确且层层夯实责任,发挥了集中力量办大事的制度优势和制度效率;着力脱贫攻坚工作的提质增效,财政投入和对口援助增速加快,全国形成合力,集中力量攻坚克难;以产业扶贫为主导因地制宜不断创新扶贫方式、以脱贫攻坚统揽经济社会发展全局,注重健全稳定脱贫的长效机制;党建扶贫发力,各级党政军企事业单位定点、驻村、结对认亲等帮扶措施多样,扶志与扶智相互融合,多方协同助力脱贫攻坚。现实中面临的挑战和问题主要集中在:深度贫困地区脱贫任务艰巨,防止返贫的相关工作还需进一步加强,因地制宜确定对摘帽县和脱贫人口的扶持政策的持续时间有很大难度;产业扶贫中优势特色产业占比有待提高,一些产业发展后劲乏力,地区自我发展能力还未真正养成;贫困人群的市场竞争意识不强,自我发展内生动力不足的问题很难短时间扭转,贫困地区教育基础薄弱,贫困代际传递的阻断还需进一步努力。为此,本文在宏观政策、政府干部和个体层面提出了相应的对策建议。

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    Abstract

    Poverty rate decreased significantly and many achievements of poverty alleviation had been made in ethnic areas of China in 2018-2019. Overall,the successful experience of poverty alleviation and building and all-round moderately prosperous society are mainly concluded as three aspects:firstly,poverty alleviation was the focused work,the goal and responsibilities are clear by different level of the government in ethnic areas of China which determined the system advantage and efficiency of China. Secondly,the quality and effect of the poverty alleviation is paid more attention by the whole China,government finance expenditure on poverty alleviation and counterpart assistance from different provinces increased very quickly compared to previous years. Industries development is the central way and the local governments have innovated new ways of poverty alleviation which pushing the region economies to development and focused on generating the stable and sustainable system of poverty alleviation. Party building works on poverty alleviation have made great effect;each level of the army,state-owned enterprises and units made supporting measures such as fixed-points,cadres staying in village and family pairing to strengthening the human capital and anti-poverty strength of the poor. The challenge and problems in reality are mainly on as follows:Firstly,it is not only very hard to finish the task of poverty alleviation in poorest regions and more works on decreasing the risk of becoming a poorer again should be done;but also difficult on how to make a decision of the period which poverty alleviation policies lasting in different regions. Secondly,the advantage industries are still less than expected,the poverty region and poverty people are short of self development capabilities. Thirdly,the poverty people are disadvantage on market competition and finding opportunities,poverty across generations are not easy to stop because of weak education in the poverty regions. Based on these,the chapter points out the policy suggestions.

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    作者简介
    王延中:王延中,中国社会科学院民族学与人类学研究所所长、研究员。
    丁赛:丁赛,中国社会科学院民族学与人类学研究所民族经济研究室主任、研究员。
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