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蔡 昉
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李 扬
    1951年9月出生,籍贯安徽,1981年、1984年、1989年分别于安徽大学、复旦大学、中国人民大学获经济学学士、硕士、博士学位... 详情>>

    中国城乡老年人的基本情况及家庭关系

    摘要

    新时代老年人的基本情况和家庭关系有一些属延续性问题,比如:女性、高龄、农村老年人依然是贫困多发群体,老年人依然在竭尽所能地为子女付出。但也有一些发生明显变化,比如:低龄老年人受教育程度提高,成为重要潜在人力资源和消费力量,也是积极老龄化社会的带动者、示范者和先锋力量;老年人的家庭规模进一步缩小、子女数量减少,家庭关系趋向代际平等和协商;父母与子女同住意愿仍然强烈,但与子女分开居住的比例日趋增加;等等。总体而言,目前中国家庭代际关系仍然以沙漏型为主,虽然亲子代看似角尖对角尖,但老年人像沙漏一样为子女家庭不断付出。子女家庭在追求独立、自由、发展和享受的同时,却容易忽略老年父母。因此,进入中国特色社会主义新时代,新型代际关系应从封闭的家庭范围走向开放的社会范围。于国家、于社会、于企业、于老年人家庭,都应致力于革新老年生活观,转变养老保障观,建立老龄市场观,重塑家庭治理观,增加互助共享观。

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    Abstract

    In the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics,the elderly has somewhat maintained what their basic situations and family relationships used to be. For example,women,people with an advanced age and the elderly in rural areas are still most likely to be the poor. Even so,the elderly are still doing everything they can to give their children best. However,some changes have also taken place. For example,the elderly at lower age who had enjoyed high level education has become the important potential human resources and consumption force,and a driver,a demonstrator and a pioneer of an active aging society. The elderly have been further reducing their family size with fewer children and building a harmonious inter-generational relation with their children on a basis of equal consultation. Through the elderly has a strong willingness to live with their adult children,the rate of low co-residence is on the increase. In general,the inter-generational relationships in Chinese families are still dominated by hourglass types. Although parents and their children may seem to be sharp-edged in this type,their elderly parents have always been making contributions to their children's families like the upper part of a hourglasses. While in pursue of independence,freedom,development and enjoyment,young children are easy to neglect their aging parents. Therefore,in this new era,the new intergenerational relationship should be built on an open society basis rather than on a closed family basis. Efforts should be devoted to reforming the outlook on the elderly,changing the concept of old-age security,establishing the concept of the elderly market,reshaping the concept of family management,and increasing the concept of mutual assistance and sharing in our country,society,enterprises and even the elderly families.

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    作者简介
    刘妮娜:刘妮娜,博士,华北电力大学经济与管理学院,博士后,主要研究方向为互助养老、老龄服务。
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