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蔡 昉
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    中国城乡老年人健康及医疗卫生状况分析

    摘要

    目前我国老年人口寿命质量并不乐观。约三成老年人健康状况较好,其中,城市、男性、低龄、文化程度较高、有配偶、非独居的老年人健康状况相对更好。但老年人慢性病患病比例较高,近七成、约一半、约六成的老年人听力状况和牙齿状况不好、疼痛感较为严重。超过半数的老年人参加了体检且从不吸烟、喝酒和服用保健品,但是也有约半数的老年人从不锻炼、睡眠质量不高。老年人基本全部享受社会医疗保险,但购买商业健康保险的比例比较低。老年人更倾向于去基层医疗机构就医,但面临收费高、排队久等问题。基于以上分析,为提升老年人生命质量、促进健康、公平、可及,本报告提出应从促进个人健康管理、加强医疗合作治理和实现社会健康公平三个维度来构建促进健康公平的综合治理体系。

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    Abstract

    With the social and economic development,the aging trend in our country becomes more and more prominent. Moreover,the life quality of the elderly population leaves little room for optimism. At the present stage,only about 30% of the elderly enjoy better health conditions. Among them,urban and young older men who live with their spouses and enjoy a higher level education will have better conditions in their health relatively. However,about 70% of elderly people suffer from chronic disease,about 50% have poor hearing and about 60% have poor dental conditions,suffering serious pain. Although more than half of the elderly have taken physical examinations and never smoke,drink and take any health care products,they also never do exercises and always endure poor sleep. At the same time,almost all the elderly enjoy social health insurance,but the elderly buying commercial health insurance takes a low rate. The elderly people tend to go to primary medical institutions for medical treatment,but face the problems of high charges and long queues. Based on the above analysis,in order to improve the life quality of the elderly and promote health,fairness and accessibility,this paper proposes that we should construct a comprehensive management system featured with fairness,health for the elderly based on the following three dimensions: promoting personal health management,strengthening medical cooperation and governance and achieving social health and equity.

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    作者简介
    胡宏伟:胡宏伟,博士,中国人民大学公共管理学院,副教授,主要研究方向为健康保障、老年问题;
    袁水苹:袁水苹,西北大学公共管理学院,研究生;
    郑翩翩:郑翩翩,北京大学人口所,研究生。
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