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蔡 昉
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李 扬
    1951年9月出生,籍贯安徽,1981年、1984年、1989年分别于安徽大学、复旦大学、中国人民大学获经济学学士、硕士、博士学位... 详情>>

    中国城乡老年人在业状况及其变化趋势

    摘要

    自1990年以来,中国老年在业人口的数量快速增加,以低龄、健康老年人为主,性别差异不断缩小。同时,老年人口的在业率呈现东-中-西依次降低、农村显著高于城市、以初中文化为分界点向高和向低递减的特征。独居老年人口的在业比例低,仅与配偶同住的老年人口在业比例高,子女“啃老”的城乡老年人口在业比例高。80%以上的老年在业人口从事农业劳动,主要通过非正式支持获取工作,在职业层级中处于低端位置。当然,老年在业人口的职业结构不断趋向合理,虽然农业劳动还是占有绝对优势地位,但是比例一直缓慢下降,从事社会生产服务和生活服务人员的比例在不断提高。

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    Abstract

    Since 1990,the elderly people in employment in China have seen fast increase in its number,among which younger and healthier old people take a large proportion,but shrinking gender gap in the elderly employment market. At the same time,the employment rate of the elderly population decreases sequentially in the east,middle and west and is significantly higher in rural areas than that in urban areas. In addition,the employment rate is affected by elderly people's education level. The number of on-the-job elderly people with junior high school education reaches a summit from which the employment rate decreases gradually according to this dividing point. The employment proportion of elderly people living alone is low,while the proportion of elderly people living with their spouses only as well as urban-rural elderly people with neet children is high. More than 80% of the elderly people in employment are mainly engaged in agricultural production by providing informal supports and in a low-end proposition of the occupational structure. Certainly,the occupational structure of the elderly population tends to be reasonable constantly. Although agricultural work still occupies an absolutely dominant position in this structure,its proportion has been declining. In comparison,the proportion of those engaged in social production and living services has been steadily rising.

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    作者简介
    彭青云:彭青云,中国人民大学博士研究生,主要研究方向为老龄社会学、老年人力资源开发。
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