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    引导人力资本再配置:劳动生产率的产业分化

    摘要

    中国经济进一步发展的动力源泉源于生产率的提高,以及传统低端产业向高端产业升级要求的人力资本的提升。21世纪以来,第二产业和第三产业的总体劳动生产率开始逐渐趋同,而在“十三五”时期,两大产业的劳动生产率又有进一步的分化。在当前阶段,由三大产业部门之间的结构转换和升级带来的配置效率改善已经逐渐完成并开始式微,而尚未获得来源于第二产业和第三产业之间的配置效率改善。进一步的生产率提升有赖于第二产业和第三产业内部的产业高端化升级来实现。目前劳动密集型产业经过多年的发展,其发展路径已经成熟。那些已经步入较高端产业行业的企业中,能否依靠技能人才完成企业的创新发展并最终获得综合人力资本配置的改善,是其最终成为高端创新型产业的关键。因此尤其需要处理好引导产业转型升级和人力资本积累的传统劳动密集型产业的稳态进步两者的协调关系。即由新型产业主导承担产业升级实现动能转换、促进生产率提高的职责,而传统产业则保障经济发展的基石稳固、吸纳就业用以支撑转型时期的平稳过渡。

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    Abstract

    The source of the further development of China’s economy comes from the improvement of productivity and the upgrading of human capital required by the upgrading of traditional low-end industries to high-end industries. Since the new century,the overall labor productivity of the secondary industry and the tertiary industry has gradually converged,and in the 13th five year period,the labor productivity of the two industries has further differentiation. In the current stage,the improvement of allocation efficiency brought by the structural transformation and upgrading among the three major industrial sectors has gradually completed and begun to decline. At the same time,China has not yet achieved the improvement of allocation efficiency from the secondary industry and the tertiary industry. Further productivity improvement depends on the high-end upgrading of the secondary and tertiary industries. At present,after years of development,the development path of labor-intensive industry has been mature. For the enterprises that have entered the higher end industry,whether they can rely on skilled personnel to complete the innovation and development of enterprises and ultimately obtain the improvement of comprehensive human capital allocation has become the key to the high-end innovative industry. Therefore,it is necessary to deal with the coordination between the industrial transformation and upgrading,the accumulation of human capital and the steady progress of traditional labor-intensive industries. That is to say,the new industry will take the lead in achieve the transformation of industrial upgrading and promoting productivity,while the traditional industry will ensure the solid foundation of economic development and absorb employment to support the smooth transition in the transformation period.

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    作者简介
    曲玥:曲玥,中国社会科学院人口与劳动经济研究所副研究员,研究方向为劳动经济与就业。
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