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    后难民危机时代下欧洲移民治理与融入(2018)

    摘要

    2017年欧洲难民危机高潮已过,2018年欧洲呈现“后难民危机时代”的新变化和新特点,即难民治理与融入问题成为各国面临的挑战。从接收国角度看,相比2017年,进入欧洲寻求庇护难民的总量在下降,意大利、德国和奥地利等国下降尤为明显,但西班牙、法国、比利时和希腊等国略有上升。从来源国角度看,叙利亚、阿富汗和伊拉克三国依然是欧洲难民的主要来源国,来自这些国家的难民数量有明显下降,而来自土耳其和俄罗斯的难民数量却有明显增长。因此,欧洲难民来源国更加多样化。

    面对后难民危机时代的这些新变化,一方面,欧盟成员国要继续管控难民的进入,做好“推”的动作,同时继续与相关国外交合作和经济合作做好“拉”的动作;另一方面,要探索已进入欧洲的移民和难民在政治、经济、文化、社会等领域的融入工作,以缓解日趋紧张的价值观冲突和非传统安全问题等。当前,难民危机引发了欧盟内部的社会分裂,特别是英国脱欧、东欧“离心离德”,已显露出欧盟的合法性危机,欧盟甚至走向解体的边缘。未来,欧盟及其成员国应在“推”“拉”基础上,将主要精力放在“融”合治理上,创新治理手段,提升各国自身社会治理的能力,从而维护欧盟的社会稳定和发展。 <<

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    Abstract

    The high peak of European Refugee crisis has passed in 2017. There are some new changes and new features in the post- crisis era in 2018. Refugee governance and integration is becoming great challenges for European countries. From the side of receiving countries,compared to 2017,the total number of asylum seekers entering Europe is decreasing;particularly,the numbers in Italy,Germany and Austria are decreasing significantly;however,the numbers in Spain,French,Belgium,and Greek are increasing. From the side of origin countries,Syria,Afghanistan,and Iraq are still the major refugee sending countries,but the number of refugees from these countries are decreasing significantly. The numbers of refugees from Turkey and Russia are increasing. As a result,refugees in Europe are more and more diversified.

    Due to these new changes in the post-crisis era,on the one hand,the EU member countries need to control the entry of refugees from the side of pushing,and they need to cooperate with related origin countries in the foreign relations and in economic development from the side of pulling. On the other hand,EU member countries need to explore ways to enhance immigrants and refugees’ integration from political,economical,culturaland sociological fields,in order to cope with the emerging value conflict and non-traditional security problems. Currently,refugee crisis has led to the social divergent within the European Union,particularly Britain’s exit from EU,and East European countries deviation from EU. These changes show the legitimacy crisis of EU,and may lead to the starting of EU’s breaking up. In the future,EU and its member countries need to put more efforts to the immigrant integration,based on effective controlling of refugee’s entry through both pushing and pulling methods. To maintain EU’s stability and development,member countries need to develop creative methods and improve their ability of immigrant governance.

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    作者简介
    毛国民:毛国民,博士、教授、政治学硕士生导师,广东外语外贸大学国际移民研究中心主任、中国人类学民族学研究会理事、国际移民研究专业委员会常务副主任兼秘书长、广东省社会管理研究会常务理事,主要研究领域:哲学、政治社会学、国际移民。
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