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    难民危机和德国右翼民粹主义运动(2011~2018)

    摘要

    伴随难民危机的发展,德国和欧洲其他国家右翼民粹主义运动吸引了越来越多的政治和社会关注。本文重点研究德国另类选择党(AfD)和欧洲“爱国欧洲人反西方伊斯兰化运动”(PEGIDA)产生的背景,以及这类组织和活动在当前难民危机的背景下对欧洲一体化的影响。AfD和PEGIDA都具有排外倾向,混杂着极端思想和对其他宗教的排斥思想。受这些民粹主义运动和排外心理的影响,寻求进入欧洲的难民生存更加脆弱,而欧洲各国在价值观上也迷失了方向,欧洲一体化进程更是受到威胁。右翼运动不仅对德国和欧洲政治稳定产生了日益增长的破坏影响,也影响到了欧洲国家的外交,包括对中德经济往来造成了危害。 <<
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    Abstract

    Since 2016,the wave of anti-globalization has a huge impact on the mainstream political parties in the western developed capitalist countries and their domestic political and economic ecology. As a result,major developed countries in the West have experienced a series of changes,adjustments and responses in their immigration governance concepts and immigration policies. The rapid rise of right-wing parties is an important social and political phenomenon triggered by the anti-globalization trend. These right-wing parties obviously have ideology and policy tendencies such as racism,anti-immigration,anti-EU integration,and anti-globalization. The structural rigidization of the European labor market and its operating mechanism has led to greater uncertainty in its macroeconomic growth prospects and policy orientation. Immigrants increase the financial burden of the EU,but also help to alleviate the pressure of population aging and introduce investment to promote economic development. However,European people generally lose confidence in government’s capabilities in managing international immigration. Public opinion has begun to oppose large-scale immigration,especially refugees. The failure of the EU governmentsin effectively controlling the refugee crisis and its subsequent catastrophic impact has deepened the public’s fear,resentment and rejection of the European refugee tide. Further,it leads to the rise of a large number of far-right parties. EU countries may adopt increasingly strict and anti-immigration policies in the future.

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    作者简介
    刘湘莲:刘湘莲,广东外语外贸大学西方语言文化学院德语系研究生。
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