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收入渴望与收入不平等

书 名: 收入渴望与收入不平等
英 文 名: Income Aspirations and Income Inequality
作 者:  尤亮 霍学喜
I S B N: 978-7-5201-6296-8
丛 书 名: 中国“三农”问题前沿丛书 订阅
关 键 词:  农民收入 研究 中国 收入不平等 苹果种植户 收入渴望
出版日期: 2020-03-01

中文摘要

持续性贫困及逐渐扩大的收入不平等程度,最终会导致阶层对立,“人性”或许是更好的解决之道,基于渴望理论,对个体的渴望进行适度引导是解决问题的重要途径。对于解决收入不平等这一复杂问题,并不存在一个绝对的理论(the theory),从收入渴望视角出发所进行的研究只能算是一个理论(a theory)。

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本书以从事专业化、 市场化生产的苹果种植户为研究基本单元, 以苹果种植户的收入渴望和收入不平等为研究对象, 从心理学、 人类学和经济学交叉视角, 回答渴望或收入渴望是什么。 通过建立收入渴望形成机制的跨学科整合框架, 回答收入渴望何以形成。 在此基础上, 建立收入不平等影响收入渴望的理论分析框架, 揭示收入不平等对收入渴望的影响机制; 建立收入渴望影响收入不平等的理论分析框架, 探究收入渴望对收入不平等的影响机制; 在收入渴望与收入不平等关系的理论分析基础上, 探讨收入渴望与收入不平等互动关系下的收入不平等演化路径。 采用两 个整村的苹果种植户调查数据, 运用实证研究方法, 对理论分析得出的收入渴望形成机制、 收入不平等影响收入渴望、 收入渴望影响收入不平等的理论分析结论予以检验。 在实证分析结果的基础上, 探讨样本村苹果种植收入不平等的演化路径以及探究如何提高低收入群体的收入渴望以降低收入不平等程度。

,AbstractEN:

This book takes apple growers engaged in specialized and market-oriented production as the basic unit of research, and takes the income desire and income inequality of apple growers as the research object. From the perspective of psychology, anthropology and economics, it answers what is the desire or income desire. Through the establishment of the interdisciplinary integration framework of the formation mechanism of income desire, we can answer why the income desire is formed. On this basis, establish a theoretical analysis framework of income inequality affecting income desire, reveal the impact mechanism of income inequality on income desire; establish a theoretical analysis framework of income desire affecting income inequality, explore the impact mechanism of income desire on income inequality; based on the theoretical analysis of the relationship between income desire and income inequality, To explore the evolution path of income inequality under the interaction between income desire and income inequality. Adopt two Based on the survey data of apple growers in the whole village, this paper uses empirical research methods to test the theoretical analysis results of income desire formation mechanism, income inequality affecting income desire and income desire affecting income inequality. Based on the results of empirical analysis, this paper explores the evolution path of income inequality of Apple planting in sample villages and how to improve the income aspirations of low-income groups to reduce income inequality.

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本章在苹果种植户概念界定的基础上, 界定了本研究所关注的苹果种植收入不平等; 从心理学、 人类学和经济学交叉视角,系统界定了渴望的内涵、 外延及特征, 在此基础上给出本书中收入渴望的定义、 解析收入渴望测度方法; 从社会比较、 渴望适应、 自我效能感和控制点等方面对收入渴望形成机制进行理论分析, 在此基础上建立收入不平等影响收入渴望的理论分析框架;以农户生产性投入为中介变量, 建立收入渴望影响收入不平等的理论分析框架; 在此基础上, 分析收入渴望与收入不平等互动关系下收入不平等的可能演化路径, 为第四章、 第五章、 第六章的实证分析和第七章的定性分析奠定理论基础。

,AbstractEN:

Based on the definition of the concept of Apple grower, this chapter defines the income inequality of Apple planting that this research focuses on; from the perspective of psychology, anthropology and economics, it systematically defines the connotation, extension and characteristics of desire, and on this basis, it gives the definition of income desire in this book and analyzes the measurement method of income desire; Based on the theoretical analysis of the formation mechanism of income desire from the aspects of social comparison, desire to adapt, self-efficacy and control points, the theoretical analysis framework of income inequality affecting income desire is established; the theoretical analysis framework of income desire affecting income inequality is established with the productive input of farmers as the intermediary variable; on this basis, This paper analyzes the possible evolution path of income inequality under the interaction between income desire and income inequality, which lays a theoretical foundation for the empirical analysis of the fourth chapter, the fifth chapter, the sixth chapter and the qualitative analysis of the seventh chapter.

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本章对样本区域基本情况进行简要介绍,对苹果种植户的基本特征及两个村庄苹果种植户间的特征差异进行了描述性统计分析,对2015年和2016年家庭决策者收入渴望的特征以及2015~2016产季苹果种植收入不平等的特征进行了描述性统计分析,为第四章、第五章和第六章的实证分析奠定基础。

,AbstractEN:

This chapter briefly introduces the basic situation of the sample area, makes a descriptive statistical analysis on the basic characteristics of apple growers and the differences between the characteristics of apple growers in two villages, and makes a descriptive statistical analysis on the characteristics of income desire of family decision makers in 2015 and 2016, as well as the characteristics of income inequality of apple growers in 2015-2016 production season, which are the fourth, fifth and fifth chapters The six chapters lay the foundation of empirical analysis.

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本书第二章基于个体的社会比较、渴望适应、自我效能感和控制点等理论探讨了收入渴望的形成机制,并以此为基础建立了收入渴望形成机制的跨学科整合框架,但尚缺乏从实证分析层面的检验。本章基于陕西富县两个村庄611户的微观调查数据,采用2016年家庭决策者收入渴望数据,从家庭决策者的社会比较收入、收入渴望适应、经济自我效能感和经济控制点对收入渴望形成机制的理论分析结果进行检验,并对比分析两个村庄家庭决策者收入渴望在形成机制上的差异性。

,AbstractEN:

The second chapter of this book discusses the formation mechanism of income desire based on the theories of individual social comparison, desire adaptation, self-efficacy and control points, and establishes the interdisciplinary integration framework of the formation mechanism of income desire on this basis, but it is still lack of empirical analysis. Based on the micro survey data of 611 households in two villages of Fu County, Shaanxi Province, this chapter uses the data of income desire of family decision-makers in 2016 to test the theoretical analysis results of the formation mechanism of income desire from the social comparison income, income desire adaptation, economic self-efficacy and economic control points of family decision-makers, and to compare and analyze the formation mechanism of income desire of family decision-makers in two villages Differences on.

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随着中国经济的快速增长,国民经济的“蛋糕”越做越大,但收入分配格局和收入不平等状况发生了较大变化,从计划经济时期的平均主义状况变为当前较高收入不平等程度,尤其是20世纪90年代以来,与大多数国家相比,中国俨然变成了收入不平等程度较高的国家。中国农村居民并没有平等地分享到市场经济高速发展带来的成果,一方面是城乡收入差距仍然较大,1990年城镇居民家庭人均可支配收入与农村居民家庭人均纯收入的比值为2.20,2009年上升到3.33,虽然其后城乡居民收入比值有小幅度下降,但到2017年这一比值仍高达2.71(匡远凤,2018;李实,2018)。另一方面农村地区收入不平等在加剧,居民收入差距处于高位(熊亮,2018)。那么,研究当前中国农村收入不平等状况会对家庭决策者收入渴望产生何种影响,无论是在理论上还是在实践中,都具有重要的意义。

,AbstractEN:

With the rapid growth of China's economy, the "cake" of the national economy has become bigger and bigger, but the pattern of income distribution and income inequality have changed greatly, from the equalitarianism in the planned economy period to the current higher income inequality, especially since the 1990s, compared with most countries, China has become a country with higher income inequality Home. China's rural residents have not equally shared the achievements brought about by the rapid development of market economy. On the one hand, the income gap between urban and rural areas is still large. In 1990, the ratio of per capita disposable income of urban households to per capita net income of rural households rose to 3.33 in 202009. Although the ratio of urban and rural residents' income has declined slightly since then, it still reached 2 in 2017 71 (Kuang Yuanfeng, 2018; Li Shi, 2018). On the other hand, income inequality in rural areas is increasing, and the income gap of residents is at a high level (Xiong Liang, 2018). Therefore, it is of great significance to study the impact of current rural income inequality on family decision makers' income aspirations, both in theory and in practice.

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已有研究在探讨中国农村居民收入不平等成因时,主要关注农村居民的个体与家庭特征、人力资本、物质资本、社会资本、经济政策、地域因素、非农收入、人口流动,以及近年来出现的机会不均等、腐败、基层民主建设、农业科技推广、环境保护政策、生产要素市场不完善等(陈建东,2012;孙敬水,2013;薛宝贵、何炼成,2015)。农村居民收入不平等成因是各种因素共同作用的结果,而个体内在心理因素对收入不平等的影响缺乏必要的关注。

,AbstractEN:

When discussing the causes of income inequality of rural residents in China, the existing researches mainly focus on the individual and family characteristics of rural residents, human capital, material capital, social capital, economic policy, regional factors, non-agricultural income, population flow, as well as the opportunities inequality, corruption, grass-roots democratic construction, agricultural science and technology promotion, environmental protection policy and production essentials in recent years Imperfect vegetable market, etc. (Chen Jiandong, 2012; sun Jingshui, 2013; Xue Guicai, he Liancheng, 2015). The causes of income inequality of rural residents are the result of various factors, but the individual psychological factors lack of necessary attention to the impact of income inequality.

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第五章实证检验了2015~2016产季苹果种植收入不平等对2016年家庭决策者收入渴望的影响,结果表明自然组收入不平等对家庭决策者收入渴望具有显著的正向促进作用;第六章实证检验了2015年家庭决策者收入渴望对2015~2016产季苹果种植收入不平等的影响,结果表明家庭决策者收入渴望的提高会扩大苹果种植收入差距。本章在第五章和第六章实证结果的基础上探讨家庭决策者收入渴望与苹果种植收入不平等的互动演化关系,从数据上看,这里的因果链条是“2015年家庭决策者收入渴望→2015~2016产季苹果种植收入不平等→2016年家庭决策者收入渴望”,因缺乏面板数据,所以并不能从严格意义上分析家庭决策者收入渴望与苹果种植收入不平等相互影响下,苹果种植收入不平等的演化路径;但若从家庭决策者收入渴望与苹果种植收入不平等的影响机制看,从定性角度的互动分析仍具有一定的参考价值;此外,在第四章实证分析结果的基础上,本章将探讨如何提升低收入群体的收入渴望,以降低苹果种植收入不平等程度。

,AbstractEN:

The fifth chapter empirically tests the impact of income inequality of Apple planting in 2015-2016 season on income desire of family decision-makers in 2016, the results show that income inequality of natural group has a significant positive effect on income desire of family decision-makers; the sixth chapter empirically tests the impact of income desire of family decision-makers in 2015-2016 season on income inequality of Apple planting in 2015-2016 season, the result table It is clear that the income gap of Apple planting will be widened by the increase of family decision makers' income desire. Based on the empirical results in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6, this chapter discusses the interactive evolution relationship between income desire of family decision makers and income inequality of Apple planting. From the data point of view, the causal chain here is "income desire of family decision makers in 2015 → income inequality of Apple planting in 2015-2016 production season → income desire of family decision makers in 2016". Due to the lack of panel data, it is impossible to In a strict sense, this paper analyzes the evolution path of income inequality of Apple Planting under the influence of income desire of family decision-makers and income inequality of Apple planting; however, from the perspective of the impact mechanism of income desire of family decision-makers and income inequality of Apple planting, the interaction analysis from a qualitative perspective still has certain reference value; in addition, based on the empirical analysis results of Chapter IV, This chapter will explore how to improve the income aspirations of low-income groups to reduce the income inequality of Apple planting.

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改革开放以来,市场经济体制改革的逐步深入,建设社会主义新农村政策的推进及众多支农惠农政策的出台等,使农村居民收入实现了快速增长,但农村居民收入不平等程度呈现不断提升的趋势。妥善解决收入分配问题是解决新时期人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分发展之间矛盾的必然选择。关于中国农村居民收入不平等问题的研究,学者们主要关注物质资本、人力资本、社会资本和地域因素等对农村居民收入不平等的影响,但对农民的心理因素缺乏关注。本研究从收入渴望这一影响个体收入增长的内生动力机制出发,构建收入渴望形成机制的理论分析框架,在此基础上,对收入不平等影响收入渴望的机制进行探讨;以生产性投入为中介,构建收入渴望影响收入不平等的理论分析框架。在收入不平等影响收入渴望理论分析和收入渴望影响收入不平等理论分析的基础上,探讨收入渴望影响下的收入不平等的可能演化路径。

以理论分析为基础,采用陕西富县两个行政村的整村苹果种植户数据,控制外在社会经济环境、自然环境等因素差异对收入渴望和收入不平等的影响,聚焦探讨苹果种植户家庭决策者收入渴望的形成机制、苹果种植收入不平等对家庭决策者收入渴望的影响、家庭决策者收入渴望对苹果种植收入不平等的影响及家庭决策者收入渴望与苹果种植收入不平等之间的互动演化关系。在综合上述章节分析基础上,本章对苹果种植户家庭决策者收入渴望与苹果种植收入不平等关系研究的主要结论进行评述,围绕提高苹果种植收入及降低收入不平等程度提出建议。

,AbstractEN:

Since the reform and opening up, the gradual deepening of the reform of the market economy system, the promotion of the policy of building a new socialist countryside and the introduction of many policies of supporting and benefiting agriculture have made the income of rural residents grow rapidly, but the income inequality of rural residents has been on the rise. To properly solve the problem of income distribution is the inevitable choice to solve the contradiction between the people's growing needs for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development in the new era. On the research of income inequality of rural residents in China, scholars mainly focus on the impact of material capital, human capital, social capital and regional factors on income inequality of rural residents, but lack of attention to the psychological factors of farmers. This study starts from income desire, the endogenous dynamic mechanism that affects individual income growth, and constructs the theoretical analysis framework of income desire formation mechanism. On this basis, it discusses the mechanism of income inequality affecting income desire, and constructs the theoretical analysis framework of income desire influencing income inequality with productive investment as the intermediary. Based on the theoretical analysis of income inequality affecting income desire and income desire influencing income inequality, this paper discusses the possible evolution path of income inequality under the influence of income desire. On the basis of theoretical analysis, this paper uses the data of apple growers in two administrative villages of Fu County, Shaanxi Province to control the influence of external socio-economic environment, natural environment and other factors on income desire and income inequality, focusing on the formation mechanism of income desire of apple growers' family decision makers, the influence of income inequality of apple growers on income desire of family decision makers, and the impact of income inequality of apple growers on income desire of family decision makers The influence of income desire of court decision-makers on income inequality of Apple planting and the interactive evolution relationship between income desire of family decision-makers and income inequality of Apple planting. Based on the analysis of the above chapters, this chapter reviews the main conclusions of the research on the relationship between the income desire of apple growers' family decision makers and the income inequality of Apple planting, and puts forward suggestions on improving the income of Apple planting and reducing the income inequality.

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