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中国碳达峰碳中和进展报告(2021)

书 名: 中国碳达峰碳中和进展报告(2021)
英 文 名: REPORT ON THE PEAK CARBON EMISSION AND CARBON NEUTRALITY (2021)
作 者: 国家电力投资集团有限公司中国国际经济交流中心
I S B N: 978-7-5201-9266-8
丛 书 名: 低碳发展蓝皮书 订阅
关 键 词:  中国经济 低碳经济 经济发展战略 碳达峰 碳中和
出版日期: 2021-12-01

中文摘要

当前,应对气候变化成为各国共识,越来越多的国家和企业加大减碳行动力度,推动新一轮能源技术和产业转型,政策体制也在加速调整和完善。我国政府高度重视应对气候变化,习近平主席2020年9月22日宣布,中国将提高国家自主贡献力度,采取更加有力的政策和措施,二氧化碳排放力争2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。2021年全国两会、3月15日中央财经委员会第九次会议等均对碳达峰、碳中和行动作出了进一步部署。

实现碳达峰、碳中和目标是一个复杂且影响广泛的社会经济问题,涉及能源、经济、环境、技术等诸多领域。我国仍处于经济快速发展、能源消费总量上升阶段,且碳排放总量和强度“双高”,要在10年内实现碳达峰、再用30年时间实现碳中和面临巨大挑战。为实现这一庄严承诺,本报告认为,实现“双碳”目标首先要解决产业结构调整和能源转型问题。须加紧降低高耗能产业比重,着力提升产业能效水平,发展节能环保和绿色低碳产业,稳定经济基本盘。同时,应按“减煤、稳油、增气、加新”的路径持续推进能源转型,逐步降低化石能源消费总量,推进新型电力系统建设,推动我国工业制造业向绿色低碳转型升级,以更高的能源效率和更清洁的能源,支撑我国经济社会发展,保障我国能源安全供应。

其次,推动健全“双碳”政策体系。推动“双碳”目标实现,需避免突击冒进和“一刀切”。应坚持全国一盘棋统筹考量,结合不同地区、不同行业、不同企业发展实际,合理制定减碳任务,做到产业上有保有压、地区上有先有后。此外,在推动“双碳”背景下的能源转型、节能提效、技术创新等方面,还面临体制机制难点。应注重破除体制性障碍,打通机制性梗阻,推动政策性创新,为加快推动“双碳”进程创造良好的内外部发展环境。

最后是加强“双碳”国际合作。推动碳中和是国际社会应对气候变化的主要内容。一方面,应对气候变化、推进低碳发展是当前国家间分歧较小的领域,也是我国加强国际合作的重要议题;另一方面,要警惕发达国家通过碳边境调节机制(CBAM)等打压我国出口企业市场竞争力,避免在西方主导的全球气候治理体系中陷入被动局面。应根据我国实际发展阶段和条件,在《联合国气候变化框架公约》框架下,坚持共同但有区别的责任,积极参与相关国际标准和规则制定,合理争取发展中国家权益。同时,加强核能、新能源等方面国际合作。

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