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    中国公共文化投入综合评价及其增长目标——2000~2018年检测与至2020年测算

    摘要

    2000~2018年,全国文化投入总量由300.29亿元增至3537.86亿元,年均增长14.69%,进展十分显著。各个五年规划期以来纵向测评的综合指数最高值均出现在2018年,但逐年增长检测显得起伏不定,并非连年持续向好;横向测评距离理想值的差距一向非常明显,综合指数不时略有下降。深入检测文化投入与经济、财政相关背景,与教育、科技、卫生投入相邻关系,与居民文化消费同构关联的协调性,检测各类数据人均值演算的地区之间的均衡性,可以揭示其间进展与差距所在:①文化投入增长较明显高于产值增长,但略微低于财政收入增长,也较明显低于财政支出增长;同时较明显低于教育投入增长,更显著低于科技、卫生投入增长。②除了文化投入以外,其余各类数据的地区差皆呈现为缩小态势,而且除了财政收入、财政支出、教育投入、科技投入、卫生投入、文化投入以外,其余各类数据的地区差皆在2018年缩减至历年最小值,而文化投入人均值地区差扩大13.02%。全国各地经济、财政“协调增长”,教育、科技、卫生事业投入“均等增长”,正在逐渐成为现实,而不再仅仅是一种追求中的理想。③文化投入占财政收入比略微低于消费占居民收入比,占财政支出比更较明显低于消费占居民支出比,公共文化投入增长滞后于居民文化消费需求变动态势。

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    Abstract

    From 2000 to 2018,the national total expenditure for public culture increased from 30.029 billion yuan to 353.786 billion yuan,with an average annual growth of 14.69%. The highest values of the composite index of longitudinal evaluation in each Five-Year Plan period mostly appeard in 2018;however it didn’t continuously improve but showing ups and downs. In the lateral evaluation,the gap of the ideal value has always been very obvious and the comprehensive index declined slightly from time to time. By in-depth testing the culture investment related to its economic and financial background,the similarities to the expenditure for education,science & technology and health,the coordination with residents’ culture consumption,and the regional balance of all kinds of per capita value calculation,we can reveal the headway and the gaps:(1)The culture investment growth was certainly higher than GDP growth;it was slightly lower than the fiscal revenue growth,and certainly lower than the fiscal expenditure growth;it was certainly lower than the education investment growth,and remarkably lower than the science & technology investment growth,as well as remarkably lower than the health investment growth.(2)Besides the culture investment,the regional disparity of all the other kinds of data has narrowed;and except the fiscal revenue,fiscal expenditure,education investment,science & technology investment,health investment,culture investment,all the other kinds of regional disparity index appeared lowest in 2018. The regional disparity of the culture investment was extended by 13.02%. It is gradually becoming a reality,not just a pursuit that the whole country has achieved economic and financial “balanced growth” and “equal growth” in the expenditure for education,science & technology and health.(3)The ratio of culture expenditure to fiscal revenues was slightly lower than that of the cultural consumption to the residents’ income,the ratio of culture expenditure to fiscal expenditure was more certainly lower than that of the cultural consumption to the residents’ expenditure. Public cultural expenditure growth remarkably lags behind the demand changes of the residents’ cultural consumption.

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    作者简介
    王亚南:王亚南,云南省社会科学院研究员,文化发展研究中心主任,主要研究方向为民俗学、民族学及文化理论、文化战略和文化产业。
    刘婷:刘婷,云南省社会科学院科研处处长、研究员,主要研究方向为文化人类学。
    赵娟:赵娟,云南省社会科学院民族文学研究所副研究员,主要研究方向为古典文学、民族文化和文化产业。
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