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中国慈善发展报告(2021)

书 名: 中国慈善发展报告(2021)
英 文 名: ANNUAL REPORT ON CHINA’S PHILANTHROPY DEVELOPMENT (2021)
作 者:  杨团 朱健刚
I S B N: 978-7-5201-9013-8
丛 书 名: 慈善蓝皮书 订阅
关 键 词:  慈善事业 社会组织 社会公益
出版日期: 2021-12-01

中文摘要

2020年是人类历史上非同寻常的一年,新冠肺炎疫情对世界各国及全球治理形成一次大考,我国慈善事业在危机与变局中迎来了新的发展时期。

身处这百年未有之大变局,中国慈善事业因为抗疫而呈现喷涌之势。虽然社会组织总量增长速度持续放缓,并且举国动员的治理体系也在继续加强对社会资源的吸纳,但是慈善资源总量仍然呈现喷涌之势,志愿服务也实现较高质量增长。在人类减贫和疫情防控的中国道路上,家国共同体得到空前强化。

民政部数据显示,截至2020年底,全国社会组织总量为89.44万个,较2019年增长3.21%,其中,社会团体37.5万个,社会服务机构51.1万个,基金会8385个,分别较2019年增长0.81%、4.93%和10.62%。截至2020年9月底,全国共设立慈善信托463单,合同金额32.42亿元。截至2020年底,全国已有554家境外非政府组织代表机构依法登记,较2019年增长8.41%,临时活动备案3239项,较2019年增长32.64%。

蓝皮书一直以来,将社会捐赠总量、全国志愿服务贡献价值和彩票公益金三者之和设定为全核算社会公益资源总量。2020年全国社会公益资源总量预测为4100亿元,较2019年增长18.85%,其中社会捐赠总量为1520亿元,彩票公益金总量为959.84亿元,志愿者服务贡献价值折现为1620亿元,分别较2019年增长10.17%、-15.80%和79.40%。2020年“99公益日”在慈善资源募集方面再创新高:互动人次高达18.99亿,5780万人次爱心网友通过腾讯公益平台捐出善款23.2亿元,加上爱心企业3.24亿元配捐和腾讯基金会提供的3.9999亿元配捐,总共募得善款30.44亿元。

2020年经过新冠肺炎疫情的洗礼,中国志愿服务发展达到一个新的里程碑高点。我国实名注册志愿者总数达到1.92亿人,志愿团体79万个,累计志愿服务时间总数37.19亿小时,贡献人工成本价值1620亿元。注册志愿者总数较2019年增长23.87%,累计志愿服务时间总数较2019年增长63.98%。疫情防控和应急救援志愿服务成为一道亮色,志愿服务制度化、标准化与专业化建设提速,最大的挑战依然是志愿服务组织和志愿者缺乏基础保障与认可。

2020年,抗击疫情是我国慈善事业发展的首要议题。围绕着打造社会治理共同体,在对外疫情防控和对内行业建设两个方向,慈善共同体的建设被再次推向高潮。构建有韧性的慈善共同体成为国内社会组织参与疫情防控的重要路径。它不仅包括社会组织的嵌入式发展和网络化协同,同时更是跨部门的多业态融合,具体包括志愿者共同体、社区共同体、公益服务共同体、慈善捐赠共同体及行业自律共同体5个层面。

这一年,慈善事业法治化进程加快推进,全国人大常委会首次开展《慈善法》执法检查并在随后发布《慈善法》修法工作时间表和路线图。人大开门修法,社会各部门通力配合,其修法建议被人大所吸纳。

2020年,中国慈善事业再次陷入公信力遭公众质疑的阴霾。个案筹款、抗疫物资的分配及发放、大病众筹平台公益属性和运营模式、性骚扰及反对家庭暴力、保障妇女儿童合法权益、“99公益日”举报与惩罚机制等议题都引发了公众的质疑与争议。

在后疫情时代,重返韧性的慈善共同体成为反思这一段时间公益慈善的工具化之后的一种价值回归。在政府负责的治理机制吸纳社会的同时,我们依然需要推进以社会自发的情感联系和社会自组织为本的慈善共同体的建设,应该继续强调慈善共同体的韧性建设,继续鼓励志愿者自组织化、促进社区防疫互助网络常态化、大力发展公益价值链、重点培育民间基金会,以催生能够消解内部张力和外部压力的韧性因子。

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