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中国慈善发展报告(2020)

书 名: 中国慈善发展报告(2020)
英 文 名: ANNUAL REPORT ON CHINA’S PHILANTHROPY DEVELOPMENT (2020)
作 者:  杨团 朱健刚
I S B N: 978-7-5201-6712-3
丛 书 名: 慈善蓝皮书 订阅
关 键 词:  慈善事业 事业发展 国家治理战略
出版日期: 2020-07-01

中文摘要

2019年是新中国成立七十周年,也是全面建成小康社会的关键之年。面对着复杂多变的国内外形势,我国慈善事业的法治化、专业化和体系化程度得到进一步加强。

2019年,民间慈善事业被进一步纳入国家治理体系当中,呈现出“治理吸纳慈善”的总体特征,在国家层面、市场层面和社会层面均有表现。慈善开始成为国家整体治理体系的一部分,并为国家治理战略目标服务。国家与社会正逐步耦合成一种统一、复杂且充满不确定性的双向嵌入关系。以企业为主体的科技向善和商业慈善在质疑中逐渐成为时尚,而企业社会责任和影响力投资成为重要主题。在民间公益慈善空间被政府和商业挤压的状态下,青年人以互联网为基础的公益自组织开始活跃,努力以社会创新方式解决社会问题。慈善事业因应政府、商业和社会要求而产生不同的话语和实践。

截至2019年底,全国共有社会组织86.7万个,较2018年增长6.2%。其中社会团体37.2万个,民办非企业单位(社会服务机构)48.7万个,基金会7580个,分别较2018年增长1.64%、9.68%和7.76%。自2016年9月1日截至2019年8月31日,全国民政部门等共认定与登记慈善组织5511家,其中1260家慈善组织获得公开募捐资格。在政府认定的募捐方案备案平台上,673家慈善组织的12641个项目进行了公开募捐备案与信息公开;备案慈善信托273单,信托财产规模29.35亿元。依法注册登记在华活动的境外非政府组织代表机构共有524家,备案临时活动2441件。

志愿服务在2019年有质的突破。志愿服务被提升到社会文明进步重要标志的高度,要同国家社会治理现代化以及“两个一百年”奋斗目标同行。2019年,我国实名注册志愿者总数达到1.69亿人,累计志愿服务时间为22.68亿小时,分别较2018年增长13.9%和3.2%。

慈善公益捐赠和社会资源汇集的大数据略有下降。蓝皮书一直以来将社会捐赠总量、全国志愿服务贡献价值和彩票公益金三者之和设定为全核算社会公益资源总量。根据测算,2019年,中国社会公益资源总量为3374亿元,较2018年减少0.97%。其中,2019年社会捐赠总量预测约为1330亿元,志愿者贡献总价值为903.59亿元,彩票公益金募集量为1140.46亿元,分别较2018年增长4.72%、9.7%和-13.18%。2019年上半年,民政部指定的20家互联网公开募捐信息平台为全国1400多家公募慈善组织发布募捐信息1.7万余条,累计获得52.6亿人次的点击、关注和参与,募集善款总额超过18亿元。2019年“99公益日”,爱心网友4800万人次捐出善款17.83亿元,超过2500家企业配捐3.07亿元,总共募得善款24.9亿元。

慈善实践继续推进多元拓展和跨界融合:社会组织党建工作高质量发展;慈善事业管理部门改革不断深化,新组建了民政部慈善事业促进和社会工作司并首次设立儿童福利司;慈善事业第三次分配作用更为凸显,在扶贫攻坚、应急救援、爱心助学、医疗救助、社区服务等领域,慈善组织促使资源和财富在不同社会群体间趋向更均衡的微循环;以企业为主体的科技向善和商业慈善方兴未艾,万向集团董事长鲁伟鼎捐资设立鲁冠球万向事业基金,引世人瞩目。

在2019年,中国慈善也背负了难以预料的负累。个人大病求助平台水滴筹、德云社相声演员的百万募捐、一些慈善组织擅自变更项目善款使用对象、公益慈善行业奖项评选公信力等都引发了公众的质疑和争议。此外,尽管2019年慈善组织仍然保持增长态势,但是相比2018年和2017年,无论基金会、社团还是民办非企业单位,其增速都明显下滑。

中国慈善事业发展中出现的这些问题,迫切需要公益慈善界和全社会的深刻反思:在未来的变革中坚持什么,摒弃什么,改变什么,创新什么?

公益人不可以不弘毅,任重而道远。

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