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中国教育发展报告(2012)

书 名: 中国教育发展报告(2012)
英 文 名: ANNUAL REPORT ON CHINA'S EDUCATION(2012)
作 者:  杨东平 柴纯青 黄胜利
I S B N: 978-7-5097-3147-5
丛 书 名: 教育蓝皮书
关 键 词:  教育事业 研究报告 中国 2012
出版日期: 2012-03-01

中文摘要

2011年,是贯彻《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2011~2020年)》的第一年。各级政府在优先发展教育、促进教育公平、义务教育均衡发展、学前教育改革等方面,取得了明显成效,教育供求关系继续改善。与此同时,公众参与教育改革、自下而上的自主探索也在升温。政府积极回应社会需求,教育治理方式出现与民间良性互动的新的改善。 国家启动“学前教育三年行动计划”,各地采取了一系列措施,使学前教育得到较快发展。各地积极推进义务教育均衡发展,各省与教育部分别签署了区域教育均衡发展的备忘录,出现了一些新的典型经验和不同模式。各地继续探索高考制度改革,在考试科目、招生方式、录取模式、考试安全和公平公正等方面都有新的进展。国家出台了民办教育的新政策,民办高校首次获得了研究生招生资格。在民办教育综合改革试点上,开始探索民办学校按营利和非营利实行分类管理。 基础教育新课程改革已走过十年的历程。据调查教师对新课改理念认同度较高,但在实践过程中也凸显一些问题。全国涌现了许多自下而上的基层自主教学改革探索案例,这些基层实践尊重学生的主体地位,体现了教育家的自主精神。 教育的热点难点问题在持续发酵升温。2011年,农村儿童营养问题、频发的校车事故等为全社会关注,引发公众对农村地区大规模“撤点并校”、寄宿制学校等政策的反思。调查发现,我国西部贫困地区中小学师生有近13%心理健康状况偏低。义务教育阶段大班额现象、农村特岗教师、家庭教育等受到关注。在大中城市,基础教育阶段的应试教育,择校竞争仍未得到遏制,“小升初”乱象丛生。这一问题的有效治理,关键在于政府是否有决心、有魄力,严格依法行政、依法治教。南方科技大学以“自主招生、自授学位”、“去官化、去行政化”为理念的办学体制改革艰难前行,显示出教育体制改革的实际困境。 教育的多元化和选择性也在增加。一些家长和学生“用脚投票”,逃离应试教育。近年来出现的新一轮留学潮,留学生低龄化特点日益明显,高中阶段国际班的规模不断扩大。正在出现的“在家上学”的探索,具有可能的发展空间。 受出生率下降的影响,我国高等教育进入了生源下降的时代。在这一背景之下,高校应缩减招生,调整专业结构,突出办学特色,并且调整新生培养方式,加强其对大学的适应性。基于6所985高校毕业生的调查结果显示:应届毕业生中只有大约三分之二的人会在当年进入劳动力市场,另外三分之一的人还将继续接受教育而在随后数年中陆续进入劳动力市场。同时,多数大学生比较认同创业者及创业实践活动,但缺乏创业的勇气。 2010年我国教育经费总量继续保持增长,增幅也较上一年有所上升。总体而言,全国各地义务教育和高等教育投入的增长速度渐缓,教育投入省际差异加大;全国大部分地区达到了《教育法》规定的教育投入增长要求。据2011年度对中国30个主要城市公众教育满意度调查,与前三年相比,我国主要城市的公众教育满意度有所降低。
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