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中国教育发展报告(2010)

书 名: 中国教育发展报告(2010)
英 文 名: ANNUAL REPORT ON CHINA’S EDUCATION (2010)
作 者:  柴纯青 杨东平
I S B N: 978-7-5097-1284-9
丛 书 名: 教育蓝皮书
关 键 词:  教育事业 研究报告 中国 2010
出版日期: 2010-03-01
获奖情况: 第二届优秀皮书提名奖

中文摘要

2009年初,《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要》向社会各界公开征集意见,激起公众对迟到的教育改革的巨大热情,引发公众参与的热潮。但教育改革的进程显然更为艰巨复杂。

为了应对席卷全球的金融危机,政府采取多种措施解决大学生就业问题,有效克服了金融危机对大学生就业的影响,全国高校毕业生就业的总体情况与上一年基本持平。教育培训市场热度不减,出国留学持续增加。但中国教育要增强竞争力和适应性,仍需加大政府的教育投入,开展实质性的教育改革。

2008年,我国教育经费总量继续保持增长,但增幅较上年有所下降。仍然有相当部分省份未达到法律规定的教育投入增长要求。

针对中小学存在的应试教育、“择校热”等严重问题,2009年全国各地采取一系列措施,规范中小学办学行为,封杀“奥数”,禁止“有偿家教”,改革考试和评价制度,促进义务教育均衡发展,但成效不一。多数地区尚没有触及根本,择校热、学生负担过重、教育资源不均衡等问题仍旧存在。农村教育正面临新形势、新问题,重点高校中农村学生的减少令人担忧,一些地方农村学校撤校并点出现一刀切的现象,导致出现新辍学流失和“上学难、上学贵”问题。各地重视解决外来人口子女的义务教育问题。全国全面实施义务教育阶段中小学校全面实施教师绩效工资政策,据调查教师的工资有所增加,对农村教师有所倾斜,但该政策在落实过程中仍遇到诸多问题,需要进一步落实和改进。在农村中小学开展的远程教育工程,基本处于“用得上”的阶段,师资匮乏和资源不配套是令“农远工程”不够落实的主要原因。

2009年岁末,“中国导弹之父”钱学森留下的“为什么我们的学校总是培养不出杰出人才”之问,激起全国上下反思高等教育改革的新高潮。高等教育领域的改革和探索逐渐活跃,筹建中的南方科技大学“去行政化”的改革,成为高等教育改革的亮点。与此同时,高校招生腐败、学术腐败、学术失范与学风不正等现象日益严重,对高等教育的关注与批评也更为激烈。

据2009年度对30个省会城市和直辖市的调查,我国主要城市的公众教育满意度得分在3.415至2.885分之间。即公众教育满意度明显偏于一般的评价。与2008年调查相比,12个城市的教育满意度上升,18个城市的教育满意度下降,首次出现跌破及格线的状况——西安、武汉均低于3.0分。

中国教育处在大变革的前夜。2009年10月31日,十一届全国人大常委会第十一次会议免去周济教育部部长职务,任命袁贵仁为教育部部长,公众对新任教育部部长寄予厚望。2010年,《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要》将正式出台,中国教育有望出现新的气象。

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