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深入推进教育公平(2008)

书 名: 深入推进教育公平(2008)
英 文 名: PROMOTE FURTHER JUSTICE IN EDUCATION (2008)
作 者:  杨东平 柴纯青
I S B N: 978-7-5097-0075-4
丛 书 名: 教育蓝皮书
关 键 词:  教育事业 研究报告 中国 2008
出版日期: 2008-03-01

中文摘要

本研究报告由著名教育学者杨东平教授牵头,国内的中青年教育专家合作研究撰写。全书由总报告、23篇专题报告、年度教育大事记,以及由重要教育文献、经典文本等组成的内容丰富的附录构成。2008年的《教育蓝皮书》第一次增加了反映香港和台湾教育的内容,丰富了教育观察的视角。

2007年,中央和地方政府优先发展教育,继续深入推进教育公平,优先发展和投资教育正在形成风气,农村免费义务教育顺利推进,国家建立了新的贫困学生资助体系,6所教育部直属师范院校实行师范生免费政策,中等职业教育快速发展。据对城乡居民进行的调查显示,公众的教育满意度有所提升,满意度均值为3.538分,各项指标的满意度都在3~4分之间,即公众的教育评价介于“一般”到“比较满意”之间。

与此同时,教育发展改革的热点、难点问题也很多。治理义务教育阶段“择校”正在艰难地推进。在农村基本实现了免费义务教育之后,教师问题成为农村义务教育的突出问题,城市流动儿童的教育则成为最为突出的教育公平问题。围绕农村民办学校能否享受“两免一补”政策以及对民办高等学校的加强管理,民办教育政策再起波澜。高等教育正在进入提高质量、内涵发展的轨道,但由于治理结构并未改善,高校贷款风波、高度行政化弊端、教育腐败和学术腐败等问题仍在继续暴露,引起社会各界的高度关注。

研究认为,当前教育公共政策的调整,主要还在增加投入、改善教育资源配置、治理乱收费的层面,政府治理的改善尚未提到应有的议事日程。传统的管理体制、陈旧的决策行为,致使教育政策领域出现新旧杂陈、参差不一的状况。有些政策行为透露出集中权力、强化行政控制的趋向。有些决策过程十分仓促、很不透明,缺乏民主化、公开化的决策程序。

研究认为,中国教育正面临一个历史性的转折点:从满足基本需要,到有可能追求好的教育、理想的教育。教育问题正在从外部逐渐转移为以内部问题为主,正在由硬件建设转为以“软件”的更新、提升为主。在基本普及九年义务教育之后,如何确定下一阶段教育现代化的目标,以及关于什么是好的教育、理想的教育,亟待通过解放思想、公开讨论,形成改革共识。

2008年是中国改革开放30年,国家将召开改革开放以来的第四次全国教育工作会议。教育界需要贯彻十七大精神,贯彻落实科学发展观,不失时机地推动以制度变革为中心的教育体制改革,在科学发展观和和谐社会建设的视野中,建设与社会主义市场经济体制、民主政治和精神文明建设相合拍的、能够兴国的教育。

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